The first triple-double in NBA history was logged by Dolph Schayes (18 points, 22 rebounds y 13 assists) on February 8, 1951, according to the Harvey J. Pollack NBA Statistical Yearbook.
The NBA all-time triple-doubles leaders in regular season are Oscar Robertson (181), Magic Johnson (138), Jason Kidd (107), Wilt Chamberlain (78), Russell Westbrook (72) and Larry Bird (59). In the playoffs, the all-time leader is Magic Johnson with 30. Prior to the 1973-74 season, the NBA did not record steals and blocked shots.
The triple-double leader among active players is Russell Westbrook, who has recorded 72 in his career, 20 more than LeBron James. LeBron is the one with the most in postseason, totalling 16 (second in historical list).
The only player in NBA history to average a triple-double in a single season is Oscar Robertson, who achieved this feat in 1961-62 season averaging 30.8 points, 12.5 rebounds and 11.4 assists per game. He recorded 41 triple-doubles in 79 games played.
Only 4 players have made a quadruple-double in their careers: Nate Thurmond (1974), Alvin Robertson (1986), Hakeem Olajuwon (1990) y David Robinson (1994). Robertson made it with points, rebounds, assists and steals and the three others, with points, rebounds, assists and blocks.
The great Wilt Chamberlain recorded on February 2, 1968 the only double-triple-double (at least 20 of any 3 statistics) in NBA history. He had 22 points, 25 rebounds y 21 assists.
(Updated Mar. 23, 2017)