The first triple-double in NBA history was logged by Dolph Schayes (18 points, 22 rebounds y 13 assists) on February 8, 1951, according to the Harvey J. Pollack NBA Statistical Yearbook.
The NBA all-time triple-doubles leaders in regular season are Oscar Robertson (181), Magic Johnson (138), Russell Westbrook (135) Jason Kidd, LeBron James (81) and Wilt Chamberlain (78). In the playoffs, the all-time leader is Magic Johnson with 30. Prior to the 1973-74 season, the NBA did not record steals and blocked shots.
The triple-double leader among active players is Russell Westbrook, who has recorded 135 in his career, 54 more than the second active player in the list, LeBron James. LeBron is the one with the most in postseason, totalling 23 (second in historical list), 10 of them in the Finals (1st).
The only two players in NBA history averaging a triple-double in a single season are Oscar Robertson, who achieved this feat in 1961-62 season averaging 30.8 points, 12.5 rebounds and 11.4 assists per game, and Russell Westbrook, who has recorded an average triple-double in three consecutive seasons (2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19).
Robertson recorded 41 triple-doubles in 79 games played in the 1961-62 season, but Westbrook recorded 42 in 81 games in the 2016-17 season, setting a new record for most triple-doubles in a season.
Only 4 players have made a quadruple-double in their careers: Nate Thurmond (1974), Alvin Robertson (1986), Hakeem Olajuwon (1990) y David Robinson (1994). Robertson made it with points, rebounds, assists and steals and the three others, with points, rebounds, assists and blocks.
The great Wilt Chamberlain recorded on February 2, 1968 the first double-triple-double (at least 20 of any 3 statistics) in NBA history. He had 22 points, 25 rebounds y 21 assists. More than 50 years later -on April 2, 2019-, Russell Westbrook recorded the second one, with 20 points, 20 rebounds and 21 assists
(Updated Apr. 4, 2019)