The first triple-double in NBA history was logged by Dolph Schayes (18 points, 22 rebounds y 13 assists) on February 8, 1951, according to the Harvey J. Pollack NBA Statistical Yearbook.
The NBA all-time triple-doubles leaders in regular season are Oscar Robertson (181), Magic Johnson (138), Jason Kidd (107), Russell Westbrook (97), Wilt Chamberlain (78) and LeBron James (68). In the playoffs, the all-time leader is Magic Johnson with 30. Prior to the 1973-74 season, the NBA did not record steals and blocked shots.
The triple-double leader among active players is Russell Westbrook, who has recorded 97 in his career, 29 more than the second active player in the list, LeBron James. LeBron is the one with the most in postseason, totalling 19 (second in historical list), 9 of them in the Finals (1st).
The only two players in NBA history averaging a triple-double in a single season are Oscar Robertson, who achieved this feat in 1961-62 season averaging 30.8 points, 12.5 rebounds and 11.4 assists per game, and Russell Westbrook (2016-17' season), averaging 31.6 points, 10.7 rebounds and 10.4 assists per game. Robertson recorded 41 triple-doubles in 79 games played in the 1961-62 season, but Westbrook recorded 42 in 81 games in the 2016-17 season, setting a new record for most triple-doubles in a season.
Only 4 players have made a quadruple-double in their careers: Nate Thurmond (1974), Alvin Robertson (1986), Hakeem Olajuwon (1990) y David Robinson (1994). Robertson made it with points, rebounds, assists and steals and the three others, with points, rebounds, assists and blocks.
The great Wilt Chamberlain recorded on February 2, 1968 the only double-triple-double (at least 20 of any 3 statistics) in NBA history. He had 22 points, 25 rebounds y 21 assists.
(Updated Mar. 10, 2018)